Friday, December 13, 2019

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Introduction

Today the importance of water in the life of living beings is known to anyone. Water is so important that numerous verses have been mentioned about water in divine books such as the holy Koran and its relationship particularly with nature and the life of living beings has been focused. The holy Koran verse “… and we made every living thing of water” refers to the importance of this relationship. Today the amount of accessible drinking water can satisfy the needs of almost 25 billion living beings. But as water is not distributed equally across the earth, humans have always been extracting, reserving, transmitting, and preserving water. Iran is a vast country which is located in arid and semiarid regions of the world, with the exception of 10% of the land between Alborz Mountains and the Caspian Sea. That is why the Iranians have been thinking about optimum use of this essence of life since very old times. They made valuable progresses and creativities in this way such as qanat construction technique for extraction of water from the depth of earth. The French tourist Sharden stated his wonder from this Iranian art and knowledge during Safawids. He believed that no one had the knowledge of underground water as much as Iranians did in those days. Dam construction advanced so much in Iran that the Iranians were recognized as the first manufacturer of arch dam in the world. In his dam construction book, Johnson referred to Qom Kobar Dam as the first arch dam of the world. It was constructed during Ilkhanid. It measured 26 meters in height and 55 meters in length, and 5 meters in the crown width. Therefore, regarding the issue of water and the growing need of society for this essence of life which was necessary for agricultural growth and promotion, industry, and social affairs progress, it seems unavoidable to identify and expand water resources, its optimum uses, treatment, and prevention from water pollution in scientific and specialized centers.


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